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  • ASTM
    D4914-08 Standard Test Methods for Density and Unit Weight of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    Edition: 2008
    $65.00
    Unlimited Users - 1 Loc per year

Description of ASTM-D4914 2008

ASTM D4914 - 08

Standard Test Methods for Density and Unit Weight of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit

Active Standard ASTM D4914 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.08

Book of Standards Volume: 04.08




ASTM D4914

Significance and Use

These test methods are used to determine the in-place density of compacted materials in construction of earth embankments, road fills, and structure backfill. For construction control, these test methods are often used as the bases for acceptance of material compacted to a specified density or to a percentage of a maximum unit weight determined by a standard laboratory test method (such as determined from Test Method D 698 or D 1557 ), subject to the limitations discussed in 1.4.

These test methods can be used to determine the in-place density of natural soil deposits, aggregates, soil mixtures, or other similar material.

Note 1Notwithstanding the statements on precision and bias contained in this test method, the precision of this test method is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D 3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing. Users of these test methods are cautioned that compliance with Practice D 3740 does not in itself ensure reliable results. Reliable testing depends on many factors; Practice D 3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

1. Scope

1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the in-place density and unit weight of soil and rock using a pouring device and calibrated sand to determine the volume of a test pit. The word rock'' in these test methods is used to imply that the material being tested will typically contain particles larger than 3 in. (75 mm).

1.2 These test methods are best suited for test pits with a volume from 0.03 to 0.17 m 3 (1 to 6 ft 3 ). In general, the materials tested would have a maximum particle size of 75 to 125 mm (3 to 5 in.).

1.2.1 These test methods may be used for larger sized excavations if desirable. However, for larger sized excavations, Test Method D 5030 is preferred.

1.2.2 Test Method D 1556 or D 2167 are usually used to determine the volume of test holes smaller than 0.03 m 3 (1 ft 3 ). While the equipment illustrated in these test methods is used for volumes less than 0.03 m 3 (1 ft 3 ), the test methods allow larger versions of the equipment to be used when necessary.

1.3 Two test methods are provided as follows:

1.3.1 Test Method A In-Place Density and Unit Weight of Total Material (Section 9).

1.3.2 Test Method B In-Place Density and Unit Weight of Control Fraction (Section 10).

1.4 Selection of Test Methods :

1.4.1 Test Method A is used when the in-place unit weight of total material is to be determined. Test Method A can also be used to determine percent compaction or percent relative density when the maximum particle size present in the in-place material being tested does not exceed the maximum particle size allowed in the laboratory compaction test (refer to Test Methods D 698, D 1557, D 4253, and D 4254 ). For Test Methods D 698 and D 1557 only, the unit weight determined in the laboratory compaction test may be corrected for larger particle sizes in accordance with, and subject to the limitations of Practice D 4718 .

1.4.2 Test Method B is used when percent compaction or percent relative density is to be determined and the in-place material contains particles larger than the maximum particle size allowed in the laboratory compaction test or when Practice D 4718 is not applicable for the laboratory compaction test. Then the material is considered to consist of two fractions, or portions. The material from the in-place unit weight test is physically divided into a control fraction and an oversize fraction based on a designated sieve size. The unit weight of the control fraction is calculated and compared with the unit weight(s) established by the laboratory compaction test(s).

1.4.2.1 Because of possible lower densities created when there is particle interference (see Practice D 4718 ), the percent compaction of the control fraction should not be assumed to represent the percent compaction of the total material in the field.

1.4.3 Normally, the control fraction is the minus No. 4 sieve size material for cohesive or nonfree draining materials and the minus 3-in. sieve size material for cohesionless, free-draining materials. While other sizes are used for the control fraction ( 3 / 8,

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About ASTM

ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000 ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access and trade, and build consumer confidence. ASTM’s leadership in international standards development is driven by the contributions of its members: more than 30,000 of the world’s top technical experts and business professionals representing 150 countries. Working in an open and transparent process and using ASTM’s advanced electronic infrastructure, ASTM members deliver the test methods, specifications, guides, and practices that support industries and governments worldwide.