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Content DescriptionThis document provides guidelines for identifying and controlling visible effects on the surface of concrete as it relates to consolidation on precast or cast-in-place-formed concrete surfaces. A perfectly homogenous and blemish-free concrete element is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. This document, therefore, does not define an acceptable level of quality, as this should be defined in the contract documents. This guide explores the direct and indirect cause-and-effect relationships, as well as other factors, concerning concrete surface appearance. Photographs are included in this document to illustrate typical concrete surface finish effects that are a departure from absolute perfection. Negative surface effects in concrete can be minimized by proper planning during the design and specification stages. Significant consolidation factors that minimize undesirable concrete negative surface effects are also discussed. Keywords: bugholes; consistency; consolidation; construction joints; discoloration; form offset; formwork (construction); layer lines; mixture proportioning; plastic settlement cracking; preplaced-aggregate concrete; quality control; sand streaking; surface air voids; surface defects; vibration; workability.
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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development and distribution of consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational & training programs, certification programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete. ACI has over 95 chapters, 110 student chapters, and nearly 20,000 members spanning over 120 countries.
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